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Areas of Study
| CHEM102 syllabus
|COURSE NUMBER: ||CHEM102|
|COURSE TITLE:||General Chemistry II|
|IAI CODE(S):|| CHM 912|
|SEMESTER CREDIT HOURS:||4|
|STUDENT ENGAGEMENT HOURS:||180|
This is the second semester of a two semester sequence in College Chemistry for students in science and engineering. The topics include equilibrium, acid-base equilibria, solubility equilibria, thermodynamics, electrochemistry descriptive chemistry of the metals and nonmetals, coordination complexes, qualitative analysis, kinetics, and organic chemistry. Class meets for 3 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
with a C or better.
A lab is required for this course. Some sections will require a separate lab, while other sections will include the lab.
STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES:
Students completing this course will exhibit knowledge and competency in describing properties and reactivity of matter through words, calculations and experimental
procedures. The student must be able to:
- Identify basic properties of the main groups of elements and their compounds as listed on the Periodic Table.
- Distinguish between elements as metals, nonmetals or metalloids.
- Name elements, ions or compounds using appropriate naming conventions given the chemical formula.
- Predict the products of and write a balanced equation for a chemical reaction given the reactants and reaction conditions
- Identify a chemical species as an oxidizing or reducing agent based on its reaction with other compounds.
- Describe uses and applications of the main groups of the elements through writing.
- Apply the factors that affect chemical reactivity to different chemical reactions.
- Calculate molecular weights, percent composition, mole ratios, limiting reagents and yields of chemical reactions through stoichiometry and the use of chemical
formulas and balanced chemical reactions.
- List and describe the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction.
- Predict the order of and calculate the rate of a reaction based on the type of reaction, temperature, pressure, or concentration.
- Determine how a system at equilibrium counters changes to the system based on Le Châtelier's Principle.
- Predict reactivity of species in solution based on the solubility product constant, types of ions in solution or presence of acids or bases.
- Describe the transfer of electrons between species in solution using balanced equations and half-reactions.
- Describe various types of electrochemical cells using calculations and diagrams that show the flow of electrons between chemical species.
- Relate energy to chemical processes using the Laws of Thermodynamics.
- Describe the exchange of energy between a system and its surroundings in terms of work, heat and internal energy.
- Define the Laws of Thermodynamics.
- Describe applications of the Laws of Thermodynamics to chemical systems.
- Calculate the amount of energy exchanged between a system and its surroundings, such as the enthalpy, heat capacity, entropy and free energy.
- Predict the nature of a chemical reaction (spontaneous, nonspontaneous, endothermic or exothermic) given the enthalpy, entropy or free energy.
- Apply knowledge of chemical properties and reactivity in a laboratory setting by:
- Creating appropriate experimental setups with glassware and equipment.
- Completing experiments in a time-efficient manner.
- Describing experiment success through calculations of percent error and percent yield.
- Summarizing the results and analyzing experimental methods through writing.
- Review from Chem 101 (2%, Week 1)
- Naming molecular and ionic compounds
- Writing balanced chemical equations
- Stoichiometry and conversions
- Periodic Table trends and properties of the elements
- Drawing structures and bonding
- Kinetics (20%, Weeks 2 & 3)
- Factors affecting reaction rates
- Differential and integrated rate laws
- Writing rate laws and identifying information about the order of a reaction based on graphs relating concentration and reaction time
- Calculation of the half-life of a reaction, rate constant, order of a reaction or rate of a reaction
- Study of reaction mechanisms, activation energies and the Arrhenius equation
- Effects of catalysts and their biological counterparts on reaction rates
- Chemical Equilibrium (10%, Week 4)
- Writing equilibrium constants and reaction quotients
- Describe the effects of concentration, temperature and pressure on equilibrium based on Le Chatelier’s Principle
- Assess how a reaction not at equilibrium conditions must act to reach equilibrium (both through words and calculations of reaction quotients)
- Calculating equilibrium constants, reaction quotients or concentrations of chemical species at equilibrium
- Acid-Base Equilibria (10%, Week 5)
- Definitions of acids and bases and identifying conjugate acid-base pairs
- Calculating pH/pOH and ranking species in terms of acidity and basicity
- Calculating acid/base equilibrium constants and pKa/pKb
- Calculating pH of strong acids/bases and weak acids/bases
- Buffers—creating a buffer, applications, calculations
- Effects of common ions on equilibrium
- Polyprotic acids
- Titrations of acids and bases—titration curves, pH calculations, Henderson-Hasselbach equation
- Equilibrium and Solubility (5%, Week 6)
- Precipitate reactions and the solubility rules
- Solubility product constant calculations
- Factors affecting solubility
- Solution reactions and Le Chatelier’s Principle
- Solubility and how common ions affect solubility
- Electrochemistry (15%, Weeks 7-8)
- Identifying redox reactions and change of oxidation states between products and reactants
- Writing and balancing half-reactions with atoms and electrons
- Balancing redox reactions in acidic and basic media
- Calculating cell potential from a given redox reaction, standard cell potentials, at equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions
- Calculating equilibrium constants from cell potentials
- The Nernst equation
- Relationship between the cell potential and Gibbs free energy
- Identifying voltaic and electrolytic cells
- Applications of electrochemistry (electroplating, batteries, etc.)
- Thermodynamics (15%, Weeks 9-10)
- Review of energy exchange in chemical systems (thermochemistry—calculating the heat of a reaction, endothermic and exothermic systems)
- Laws of Thermodynamics (First, Second and Third) and their implications
- Definitions of enthalpy, entropy and free energy
- Calculations of enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy
- Chemical reactions and spontaneity
- Driving forces of chemical reactions—how entropy, enthalpy and free energy affect equilibrium and chemical reactions
- Nonmetals: Halogens, Sulfur, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (9%, Weeks 11-12)
- Naming and common compound formation of these elements, such as oxyacids
- Trends in the properties of nonmetals
- Chemical synthesis and reactivity of their compounds, especially as oxidizing and reducing agents
- Sources and uses of these elements and their compounds
- Writing and predicting chemical reactions of these elements and their compounds
- Metals: Coordination Complexes and Metal Cations (9%, Weeks 13-14)
- Naming and bonding theories of coordination complexes
- Properties of the Alkali, Alkaline Earth and Transition Metals
- Synthesis and reactivity of metal compounds
- Uses of metals in catalysis, biological processes and industrial processes
- Purity and hardness of water based on metal content
- Organic and Biological Chemistry (5%, Weeks 15-16)
- Simple naming and identification of organic functional groups
- Function and reactivity of biological molecules, such as lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids and nucleic acids
- Discussion of drug development and chemistry
Weekly Lab Outline:
Experiments completed in this course are designed to build upon the basic skills gained in CHEM101 lab. Students will further develop their skills in using instruments
and analytical methods in a laboratory setting and build critical thinking skills through analysis of the experimental procedures and results with mathematical
calculations and writing. Weekly reports are written to show students' ability to organize and present data in a coherent manner and analyze the results of their
experiment. All labs are conducted in a wet-lab and are hands-on. Lab meets for 3 hours weekly.
- Lab 1 - Safety & Procedures
- Students will review safety information, as well as laboratory policies and procedures.
- Students will prepare an Excel graph with a trendline using provided data.
- Lab 2 - Calibration of Glassware
- Evaluate and calculate the volume of water delivered by volumetric glassware and its error using the density of water.
- Use of volumetric pipettes and a buret.
- Development of a procedure for determining the volume of an unmarked piece of glassware.
- Calculation of density, percent error and standard deviation
- Discussion of how glassware is used (positioning of meniscus, delivering the last drop, etc.) can affect the volume of liquid delivered
- Lab 3 – LeChatelier’s Principle & Chemical Equilibrium
- Examine the effects of concentration, the common ion effect and temperature on several chemical systems’ equilibria.
- Observation of copper(II) sulfate and ammonia system; nickel(II) chloride and ammonia system; and silver nitrate and sodium carbonate system reactions with either HCl,
nitric acid, and ammonium hydroxide
- Use of observations of the chemical systems and LeChatelier’s Principle to explain changes in the systems and species formed in solution
- Prediction of complex ion formation
- Lab 4 - Reaction Rates
- Perform a rate study of chemical reactions.
- A reaction of potassium iodide and potassium bromate is studied for how quickly the color of a starch indicator changes. The reaction also uses sodium thiosulfate and
- Students then perform trials where they change the concentration, temperature and use a catalyst.
- Calculation of the reaction rate.
- Calculation of the orders of each reactant from class data.
- Discussion of the effects of temperature and catalysts on the system.
- Lab 5 - Rate Laws
- Determine the order of a reaction and the rate law using the change in absorbance for the reaction of a food dye with bleach
- Reaction data is graphed in Excel.
- Order of reaction is determined graphically.
- The rate constant is also determined.
- Lab 6 - Equilibrium
- Examine how concentration can affect the equilibrium of a reaction.
- The reaction of iron(III) nitrate with potassium thiosulfate is studied by doing a titration technique that is monitored using UV-Visible spectrophotometry.
- Use of volumetric glassware and spectrophotometers.
- Calculation of solution concentrations using the dilution equation.
- Graphing of the absorbance versus concentration to determine the molar absorptivity.
- Lab 7 – Titration Curves
- Titrate an acid and a base to generate a graph of the titration and determine the pKa of the acid.
- Titrations are done between a strong acid and strong base and compared to that of a weak acid and strong base.
- Data is graphed in Excel to create titration curves.
- Equivalence points are determined graphically and compared to the endpoint of the titration.
- Use of volumetric glassware, pH electrodes and stir plates.
- Lab 8 – Weak Acids
- Determine the identity of an unknown weak acid through titration.
- An unknown weak, organic acid is titrated with sodium hydroxide.
- Molar mass and standard deviation are calculated.
- The pH of the solution is calculated throughout the titration using equilibrium calculations and ICE tables.
- Lab 9 - Natural Indicators
- Explore the pH scale through titration with a natural indicator.
- Pigments are extracted from flower petals to use in a titration between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.
- Use of pH electrodes, stir plates and burets.
- Each pigment is evaluated as an indicator for the reaction.
- Students research their flower to determine the identity and structure of the pigment.
- Lab 10 - Solubility Product Constant
- Determine the solubility constant based on the concentrations of a variety of calcium solutions.
- A calibration curve is created for calcium chloride dihydrate of the voltage versus calcium concentration using a calcium ion-selective electrode. This is used to
determine the concentration of calcium ions in solutions containing other ions and solids.
- Use of volumetric flasks, centrifuges, calcium ion-selective electrodes and voltmeters. Data is used to calculate the Ksp values and related to the ions present in
- Lab 11 - Thermodynamics
- Apply the thermodynamic concepts of enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs' free energy.
- Solutions of borax are made and heated to different temperatures while keeping saturation.
- Use of volumetric flasks, water baths and burets.
- Data is organized in an Excel spreadsheet to more easily calculate the Ksp.
- A graph of 1/T versus lnKsp is used to calculate the change in enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy.
- Lab 12 - Reductions
- Explore reactions with metals to rank the metals as reducing agents.
- Aqueous solutions and solids metals of copper, tin, zinc, magnesium, aluminum and silver are reacted together and observed for extent and speed of reaction.
- Metals are ranked in terms of reactivity.
- Balanced half-reactions are written for the reduction and oxidation reactions.
- Students compare a prediction of the best reducing agent to their actual results.
- Lab 13 - Ferri/Ferrocyanide
- Examine the formation of ferrocyanide from the reduction of ferricyanide with ascorbic acid.
- Ferricyanide is reacted with ascorbic acid and the formation of ferrocyanide is monitored by UV-Visible spectrophotometry.
- Use of automatic pipettes, silver/silver chloride electrodes and UV-Visible spectrophotometers.
- The reaction quotient is calculated.
- Data is collected and organized into an Excel spreadsheet to generate a graph of Ecell versus lnQ.
- Students calculate the moles of electrons transferred in the reaction and the standard electrode potential.
- The standard electrode potential is converted from the silver/silver chloride electrode to the SHE.
- Lab 14 - Hardness of Water
- Analyze water samples for levels of calcium carbonate and relate this to the measure of "water hardness".
- Samples of calcium carbonate are titrated with EDTA as a standard for the experiment.
- Students collect samples of water from around the building and titrate with EDTA to determine the water hardness.
- Discussion of the chelation of calcium ions with EDTA and the uses of EDTA.
- Use burets.
- Lab 15 - Fischer Esterification
- Conduct small-scale esterification reactions to explore organic chemistry and the properties of certain organic compounds.
- Several carboxylic acids and alcohols are available for students to make esters by heating a few drops in a test tube. The product formation is confirmed through the
scent of the product.
- A basic explanation of the Fischer Esterification is offered.
- IUPAC naming is discussed, as well as the common naming of organic compounds.
TEXTBOOK / SPECIAL MATERIALS:
|Lab Text/Manual Title: CHEM 102 Lab Manual. Gaier. DACC custom lab manual. Fall 2019 edition.
||Description of Lab
|Lab 1 - Lab Introduction and Safety Orientation
||Students will review safety information, as well as laboratory policies and procedures in this mandatory orientation lab.
Students will prepare an Excel graph with a trendline using provided data.
|Locate and discuss proper usage of safety equipment.
List the requirements for proper clothing and footwear in the lab.
Create a scatter plot with a linear trendline using Excel.
|Lab 2 - Calibration of Glassware
||Evaluate and calculate the volume of water delivered by volumetric glassware and its error using the density of water.
||Calculate the density of water from mass and volume to calibrate a volumetric pipette and buret.
Design a procedure to determine the head space of a buret.
Analyze experimental results in a lab report using calculations and writing.
|Lab 3 - LeChatelier’s Principle & Chemical Equilibrium
||Examine the effects of concentration, the common ion effect and temperature on several chemical systems’ equilibria.
||Observe the effects of adding chemicals to an equilibrium system.
Explain observed effects of adding chemicals to an equilibrium system by applying Le Châtelier’s Principle.
| Lab 4 - Reaction Rates
||A reaction of potassium iodide and potassium bromate is studied for how quickly the color of a starch indicator changes.
Students perform trials where they change the concentration, temperature and use a catalyst.
|Observe how concentration, temperature and catalysts affect the rate of a reaction.
Calculate the reaction rate of a chemical reaction by monitoring the time it takes for the reaction to change color.
Determine the rate law for the reaction using concentration and reaction rate.
|Lab 5 - Rate Laws
||Determine the order of a reaction and the rate law using the change in absorbance for the reaction of a food dye with bleach.
||Observe the changes in the reaction rate using a spectrophotometer to monitor the solution absorbance.
Use graphing in Excel to determine if the reaction is zero, first or second order.
Calculate the rate constant from the rate law determined by graphing.
|Lab 6 - Chemical Equilibrium
||Examine how concentration can affect the equilibrium of a reaction.
The reaction of iron(III) nitrate with potassium thiosulfate is studied by doing a titration technique that is monitored using UV-Visible spectrophotometry.
|Make stock and diluted solutions using volumetric glassware.
Monitor the equilibrium of the reaction using a spectrophotometer.
Graph the experimental results to relate the absorbance to the concentration of ions at equilibrium.
Determine equilibrium constant and molar absorptivity using the trendline equation.
|Lab 7 - Titration Curves
||Titrate an acid and a base to generate a graph of the titration and determine the pKa of the acid.
Titrations are done between a strong acid and strong base and compared to that of a weak acid and strong base.
|Monitor changes in pH during a titration using a pH electrode.
Graph the titrations using pH and volume of NaOH added.
Determine the equivalence point for each titration.
Determine the pKa of the weak acid using the titration curve and compare it to the literature value.
|Lab 8 - Weak Acids
||An unknown weak, organic acid is titrated with sodium hydroxide.
||Determine the identity of an unknown weak acid through titration.
Calculate the pH of the titration after the addition of certain volumes of base using ICE tables and the Henderson-Hasselbach equation.
|Lab 9 - Natural Indicators
||Explore the pH scale through titration with a natural indicator.
Pigments are extracted from flower petals to use in a titration between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.
|Extract pigments from flowers.
Titrate an acid and base using a flower pigment as an indicator.
Evaluate the effectiveness of pigments as indicators for titrations through relating color change, endpoints and equivalence points.
|Lab 10 - Solubility Product Constant
||A calibration curve is created for calcium chloride dihydrate of the voltage versus calcium concentration using a calcium ion-selective electrode. This is
used to determine the concentration of calcium ions in solutions containing other ions and solids.
||Make a stock solution and diluted standard solutions using volumetric glassware.
Measure the voltage of solutions using a calcium selective ion electrode.
Create a standard curve to show the relationship between voltage and calcium ion concentration.
Use the standard curve and the solution voltage to determine the calcium ion concentration in a solution.
Calculate Ksp for calcium sulfate in solutions containing varying ions.
|Lab 11 - Thermodynamics
||Apply the thermodynamic concepts of enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs' free energy.
Solutions of borax are made and heated to different temperatures while keeping saturation.
|Observe the effects of temperature on the dissolution of borax through titration with HCl.
Use a centrifuge to extract a liquid from a heterogeneous solution.
Graph the experimental data based on the van’t Hoff equation.
Calculate the change in Enthalpy, Entropy and Gibbs Free Energy using the equation of the trendline on the graph and the Gibbs Free Energy Equation.
|Lab 12 - Reductions
||Aqueous solutions and solid metals of copper, tin, zinc, magnesium, aluminum and silver are reacted together and observed for extent and speed of reaction.
||Observe several redox reactions.
Rank metals as reducing agents based on the observations of redox reactions performed.
Describe reactivity of metals using half-reactions.
|Lab 13 - Ferri/Ferrocyanide
||Ferricyanide is reacted with ascorbic acid, and the formation of ferrocyanide is monitored by UV-Visible spectrophotometry.
||Observe the redox reaction of ferricyanide and ascorbic acid using a silver/silver chloride electrode.
Relate the Nernst Equation to the reaction results through calculations.
Graph voltage versus the reaction quotient.
Determine the standard cell potential and electrons transferred using the equation of the trendline from the graph.
Calculate the standard cell potential based on the SHE from the potential determined using the Ag/AgCl electrode.
|Lab 14 - Hardness of Water
||Samples of calcium carbonate are titrated with EDTA as a standard for the experiment.
Students collect samples of water from around the building and titrate with EDTA to determine the water hardness.
|Calculate the amount of EDTA solution required to react with calcium ions in solution based on the titration results.
Determine the amount of calcium ions in water samples.
Describe the water hardness of the water samples using calcium ion concentration, ppm and grains.
Describe the reaction of EDTA with calcium ions using the terms chelation and ligand.
|Lab 15 - Fischer Esterification
||Conduct small-scale esterification reactions.
Several carboxylic acids and alcohols are available for students to make esters by heating a few drops in a test tube.
|Observe the reactivity of the carboxylic acid and alcohol functional groups through a Fischer Esterification reaction and scent.
Describe esters through balanced chemical equations and the IUPAC naming system.
|Total lab contact hours:
Text: Tro, N.J. Chemistry: A Molecular Approach. 4th edition. Pearson-Prentice Hall, 2017. ISBN-13:9780134112831. It is not necessary to bring this text to class daily, although you should be practicing the problems from the book as it may be useful for asking questions.
Lab Manual: CHEM 102 Lab Manual. A. Gaier. DACC custom lab manual. Fall 2019 edition.
Laboratory Notebook: A bound laboratory notebook with duplicate sheets. This is where you'll record your data in lab. I recommend the spiral bound 100 page carbon copy notebook from Hayden Mcneil Publishers. This notebook can often last students two semesters.
Safety Goggles: Students must purchase their own laboratory safety goggles. Goggles are available in the DACC Bookstore. If you already have your own, they must offer complete protection of the side of your eyes. (Look for the markings "Z87" stamped on the goggles.) Lab safety glasses are not acceptable for students.
Calculator: Any simple scientific or graphing calculator is sufficient.
Enclosed Shoes & Pants: For lab days. If you are not dressed appropriately you will not be allowed to participate.
Lab assignments/grading: The lab portion of the grade is composed of a prelab assignment, inlab data/observations, and final lab group report. Each week, except for the Safety experiment, a prelab assignment must be completed which helps prepare the student for the experiment. If this assignment is not completed and turned in by the start of the lab, the student will not be allowed to stay for the experiment. Prelab assignments can be found in the lab manual. Students will collect data and observations during lab, and a copy of this will be turned in for points before the end of the lab. A formal written report and set of questions concerning the experiment/data will be completed and turned in by the beginning of the following week of lab. The post-lab questions and lab report format are also in the lab manual.
Grading is done as a weighted percentage. The following breakdown indicates the grading area, number of assignments/assessments in parentheses and the percentage.
|Homework assignments (8-12)
Lab (see Lab section)
Exams (4 or more)
Final Exam (Cumulative)
Homework assignments are problems from the book. A list of assigned problems and their due dates will be listed on Blackboard (https://dacc.blackboard.com/webapps/login/). Homework problems are generally due weekly or biweekly at the beginning of the lecture on the day due. Selected problems will be graded for total credit and the remaining problems will be given completion points.
Attendance is required and a student may be withdrawn from the class roster due to unexcused absences. Laboratory work must be performed during the regularly scheduled laboratory period. "Make-up" laboratory work at an alternate time will not be an option. No credit will be given for laboratory reports/work submitted if the student was absent from that laboratory session. Students showing up to lab without the prelab assignment completed will not be able to stay and complete the lab. If a student has a valid excuse for missing a lecture or laboratory class, credit for the missed period may be arranged with instructor. It will not be "automatic".
All students must pass the laboratory portion of the class in order to pass the course.
The final exam will include all the material that is covered in the semester. Every student is required to take the final exam at the scheduled time.
A curve may be applied at the instructor's discretion.
|STUDENT CONDUCT CODE:||Membership in the DACC community brings both rights and responsibility. As a student at DACC, you are expected to exhibit conduct compatible with the educational mission of the College. Academic dishonesty, including but not limited to, cheating and plagiarism, is not tolerated. A DACC student is also required to abide by the acceptable use policies of copyright and peer-to-peer file sharing. It is the student’s responsibility to become familiar with and adhere to the Student Code of Conduct as contained in the DACC Student Handbook. The Student Handbook is available in the Information Office in Vermilion Hall and online at: https://www.dacc.edu/student-handbook|
|DISABILITY SERVICES:||Any student who feels s/he may need an accommodation based on the impact of a disability should contact the Testing & Academic Services Center at 217-443-8708 (TTY 217-443-8701) or stop by Cannon Hall Room 103. Please speak with your instructor privately to discuss your specific accommodation needs in this course.|